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This volume addresses the engagement between science and society from multiple viewpoints. At a time when trust in experts is being questioned, misinformation is rife and scientific and technological development show growing social impact, the volume examines the challenges in involving the public in scientific debates and decisions. It takes into account societal needs and concerns in research, and analyses the interface between the roles of institutions and individuals. From environmental challenges to science communication, participatory technological design to animal experimentation, and transdisciplinarity to norms and values in science, the volume brings together research on areas in which scientists and citizens interact, across diverse, often understudied, socio-cultural contexts in Europe. It encompasses the natural sciences, engineering and the social sciences, and the chapters follow diverse theoretical frameworks and methodologies, including both quantitative and qualitative approaches. This volume contributes not just to scholarly knowledge on the topic of science and society relations, but also provides useful information for students, policy makers, journalists, and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) researchers keen on engaging with their publics and conducting responsible research and innovation.
Table of contents :
List of Figures
List of Tables
Chapter 1: Introduction: How the Sociology of Science and Technology Addresses Science and Society Relations
About This Book
Part I: Scientists´ Research Practices and Responses to Societal Demands
Chapter 2: Norms, Competition, and Visibility in Contemporary Science: The Legacy of Robert K. Merton
Universalist Sceptics or Particularist Dogmatists? Values and Norms Within and Beyond Science According to Merton and His Crit…
Knowledge as Property or a Gift, Between Academic Science and `Science 2.0´
Can One Still Speak of a `Scientific Community´?
The `Matthew Effect´: Competition and Inequality in Science
Science Between the `Long Tail´ and the `Star System´
Science Between Reputation and Visibility
Merton and Social Studies on Science: A Disputed Legacy?
Chapter 3: Re-distributing Responsibility in Transdisciplinary Knowledge Production and Circulation
Responsibility and Participatory Knowledge Production
Re-thinking Knowledge Production
Responsibility, RRI, and Care
Theoretical Framing: Imaginaries and Their “Translation´´
Case and Material
Imagining and Translating Responsibility
A “New Science Culture´´ of “Responsible Care´´
Chapter 4: How Do Scientists Doing Animal Experimentation View the Co-evolution Between Science and Society? The Swiss Case
The Co-evolution of AE in Switzerland
Three Main Changes
A Survey of Scientists
Scientists´ Attitudes Toward These New Constraints
Factors Affecting Each Constraint
Relationship Between Constraints
Chapter 5: Science-Society Relations in a Context of Technological Change: How Scientists Working on Renewable Energy Technolo…
Representations on Renewable Energies
Social Responsibility of Science
Part II: Science Communication and Citizen Participation in Science
Chapter 6: Bringing Science to the Public: Is It a Matter for Scientific Associations?
The Scientific Associations´ Missions in Historical Perspective
The Growing Number of Scientific Associations and the Emergence of Associations Devoted to the Public Communication of Science
Public Communication of Science as a Motivation of Scientists for Membership
The Participation of “Non-scientists´´ in the Associations
Is Public Communication of Science an Issue for All Types of Scientific Associations?
The Collaboration with Other Institutions for the Sake of Public Communication of Science
What Kind of Activities Are They Doing?
The Role of Scientific Association in the Ciência Viva´s National Summer Campaign
Chapter 7: Turning the Gaze on Ourselves: Public Communication of Sociology
Science Dissemination in Portugal
Sociology in Portugal
Sociology Translated to Policy Makers and Stakeholders
Stimulating Vocations in Sociology
Reaching Out to the Wider Public
Sociology in Old and New Media
Sociology in Science Events
Chapter 8: Technologies of Participation in Water Plans in Portugal: What Kind of Science-Society Relationship Are We Talking …
Participation from a Constructivist Perspective: What Are the Links Between Society and Experts?
Water Policy and Participation: Portuguese Water Planning
Methods and Data
Participative Sessions for Significant Issues in Water: A Report at the Centre of a Participation Mechanism
Looking at the Participation Format: How Does a Material Configuration Enact Actors´ Roles?
Looking Closely at the Discourse: To What Extent Can Techno-Scientific Arguments Be Revisited?
Chapter 9: Material Trajectories: How Issues Come to Matter in a Citizen Conference
Building a Particular Mode of Conjoining Science, Technology, and Society
Participants´ Preparation Stage
Chapter 10: Two Turtles: Children and Autonomy in Participatory Technological Design
Children´s Participation in Knowledge Societies
Ethics of Care and Matters of Care in Technoscience
Considerations About Autonomy
Autonomy as an Emergent Quality
Autonomy as a Sustaining Network of Intangibles
Autonomy as Materiality